Sometimes late side effects develop months or years after surgery. In addition, standardization of postoperative care is essential to minimize postoperative complications. These complications have different influences on outcome and have to be diagnosed accurately. Another study demonstrated that continuous epidural analgesia is superior to patient controlled opioid analgesia in relieving postoperative pain for up to 72 hours, but was associated with a higher incidence of pruritus [ 90 ]. It was also not associated with severe local or systemic complication except for transient incontinence, which tends to recover expectantly[ 9697 ]. Subclinical leaks are more benign in their natural history compared with clinical leaks although quality of life and bowel function does not differ in these groups [ ].
Drainage through the rectum is preferable when they originated from intersphincteric spread.
Controversies in the treatment of common anal problems
We also tried to show strategies to minimize intra- and postoperative complications. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. DH has been involved in drafting the manuscript and has given final approval of the version to be published. Evidence-based value of prophylactic drainage in gastrointestinal surgery: Risk factors and complications in colorectal surgery.